Novetats

Computación cooperativa

UPCommons - dl., 01/08/2018 - 12:21
Computación cooperativa Barceló García, Miquel
Categories: Novetats

Towards a unified catalogue of non-technical quality attributes to support COTS-based systems lifecycle activities

UPCommons - dl., 01/08/2018 - 12:20
Towards a unified catalogue of non-technical quality attributes to support COTS-based systems lifecycle activities Carvallo Vega, Juan Pablo; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier; Quer Bosor, Maria Carme Several activities of the COTS-based systems lifecycle are supported not only by the analysis of their technical quality but also (and sometimes mostly) by considering how they fulfill some non-technical quality features considered relevant (licensing, reputation, costs and similar issues). Whilst many catalogues of technical quality features exist, it is not the case for non-technical ones, which are often managed in an ad-hoc form. In a recent work, we proposed a catalogue of non-technical quality features, designed to integrate smoothly into the ISO/IEC 9126-1 standard. In this paper, we detail the process used for the composition of the catalogue, which embraces the inclusion of several non-technical quality features already identified in the literature as well as others which have emerged form our own experience in industrial COTS components selection processes. We also outline some potential applications of the resulting catalogue, intended to support several activities of the COTS-based systems lifecycle. Finally, we describe a COTS selection process carried out in a telecommunications company.
Categories: Novetats

El nuevo "prosumer"

UPCommons - dl., 01/08/2018 - 12:13
El nuevo "prosumer" Barceló García, Miquel
Categories: Novetats

Telonero de ASIMO

UPCommons - dl., 01/08/2018 - 11:58
Telonero de ASIMO Barceló García, Miquel
Categories: Novetats

DISSENY D'EXCAVACIONS DE SUPERFÍCIE

UPC OpenCourseware - dl., 01/08/2018 - 00:00
Obtenció dels coneixements relatius a la planificació, disseny, mètodes i màquines d'explotació en mineria de superfície, per a l'òptima extracció a cel obert de la matèria mineral necessària per a l'obtenció dels productes minerals útils per a la societat.
Categories: Novetats

MODELITZACIÓ EN PROCESSAMENT DE MINERALS

UPC OpenCourseware - dl., 01/08/2018 - 00:00
Obtenció dels coneixements avançats en les tecnologies per gestionar, planificar i dissenyar instal·lacions de trituració, molta i classificació volumètrica, implementació d'aquestes tecnologies en mines a cel obert i automatització d'aquests processos, per a l'obtenció dels productes minerals que satisfan les necessitats de la societat.
Categories: Novetats

Pilot contamination reduction in massive MIMO systems

UPCommons - ds., 01/06/2018 - 13:37
Pilot contamination reduction in massive MIMO systems Liesegang Maria, Sergi Massive MIMO systems have been pointed out as one of the possible strategies to enhance system performance and reach the high data rates modern wireless communications demand. It represents a breakthrough in modern investigations given the new degrees of freedom and the extra dimensional space it provides. However, given the lack of channel knowledge, estimation must be employed. After this process, some interference due to the fast variation of the channel, which implies users sharing training sequences, is left. This is commonly referred to as pilot contamination and heavily compromises the throughput, specially in the large scale antennas regime. In this thesis, we will first study in detail this dramatic effect for later introducing different proposals that attempt to reduce its impact. In particular, we will start with the use of two main filters as basic processing. Next, allocation schemes to properly distribute users are discussed. Then, we will suggest projection based methods that transform the estimates with the purpose of canceling the undesired portions and strengthen the user destined signals. At the end of this analysis, it is shown numerically that the approaches presented behave well in these scenarios and help mitigate the interference created. This allows a faster and more robust transmission of information to take place in environments where pilot contamination is present.
Categories: Novetats

Metodología Kata

UPCommons - ds., 01/06/2018 - 13:32
Metodología Kata Sabaté i Cadenas, Jordi The aim of this thesis is to understand, analyze and summarize the methodologies used by the Japanese automobile company Toyota for people management and continuous improvement. These methodologies are based on the scientific method and provide tools to address the problems and circumstances that have not yet materialized in the organization that has these mechanisms rooted in their habits and ways of thinking. Improvement Kata is the method to move forward through the obstacles towards a previously established direction, and Coaching Kata is the method to guide in the correct enforcement of these habits and mechanisms. A protocol is also presented for the implementation of this culture and work philosophy in any company or organization that does not have a relationship with Toyota. Finally, an example of the application of the methodology in a real case is shown.; El objetivo de este trabajo es la comprensión, análisis y síntesis de las metodologías empleadas por la empresa japonesa de automóviles Toyota, para la gestión de personas y mejora continua. Estas metodologías están basadas en el método científico, estos mecanismos arraigados en sus hábitos y maneras de pensar tienen la virtud, de dotar de unas herramientas para poder atacar los problemas y las circunstancias que encara no se han planteado. El Improvement Kata es el método para avanzar a través de los obstáculos hacia una dirección previamente establecida, y el Coaching Kata es el método para guiar en la correcta aplicación de estos hábitos y mecanismos. También se presenta un protocolo de implementación de esta cultura y manera de hacer en cualquier empresa u organización que no tenga relación con Toyota. Por último se muestra un ejemplo de la aplicación de la metodología en un caso real.; L?objectiu d'aquest treball és la comprensió, anàlisi i síntesi de les metodologies emprades per l?empresa Japonesa d?automòbils Toyota, per a la gestió de persones i millora continua. Aquestes metodologies estan basades en el mètode científic, aquests mecanismes arrelats en els seus hàbits i maneres de pensar tenen la virtut, de dotar d?unes eines per poder atacar els problemes i les circumstàncies que encara no s?han plantejat. L?Improvement Kata és el mètode per avançar a través dels obstacles cap a una direcció prèviament establerta, i el Coaching Kata és el mètode per guiar en la correcta aplicació d?aquests hàbits i mecanismes. També es presenta un protocol d?implementació d?aquesta cultura i manera de fer en qualsevol empresa o organització que no tingui relació amb Toyota. Per últim es mostra un exemple de l?aplicació de la metodologia en un cas real.
Categories: Novetats

Design and development of support for GPU unified memory in OMPSS

UPCommons - ds., 01/06/2018 - 13:24
Design and development of support for GPU unified memory in OMPSS Rodríguez Soto, Aimar Heterogeneous computing has become prevalent as part of High Performance Computing in the last decade, with asynchronous devices such as Graphics Processing Units constantly evolving. As HPC becomes more specialized and heterogeneous devices become more advanced and implement new features, a challenge is presented to traditional programming models. Programming models and tools needs to adapt in order to keep a competitive performance. Due to this, a new version of the OmpSs programming model is being developed, taking into account the nuances of newer technologies and architectures. In this context, a need to develop support for heterogeneous devices for the new version of the model arises. This project presents the development and evaluation of support for CUDA enabled devices on the Nanos6 runtime being developed for the OmpSs-2 programming model. The design choices are analyzed in the context of modern GPU programming and architectures, and the performance and execution of a series of benchmarks is analyzed to understand the performance characteristics of the runtime.
Categories: Novetats

Projecte constructiu de passarel·la de vianants sobre l’autovia A-2, al terme municipal de Collbató

UPCommons - ds., 01/06/2018 - 12:51
Projecte constructiu de passarel·la de vianants sobre l’autovia A-2, al terme municipal de Collbató Casany Domènech, Jana La passarel·la objecte del present projecte es situarà en el municipi de Collbató, el qual es troba situat als peus del massís de Montserrat en la part més septentrional de la comarca del Baix Llobregat, en la província de Barcelona. Aquest consta de 4.396 habitants, estenent-se al llarg de la A-2 amb una superfície de 18,1 km2 . La seva economia es basa principalment en els serveis, seguit per la indústria i la construcció; d’altre banda, l’agricultura s’ha vist fortament reduïda en els darrers anys. També és un punt d’atracció turística, sobretot pels excursionistes, degut a la seva localització a la part inferior del parc natural de la Muntanya de Montserrat; la qual cosa provoca que sigui una via de pas a aquesta. El principal eix d’accés i en el qual està vertebrat el municipi és l’autovia A-2, la qual permet una connexió directa entre Barcelona i Lleida. La carretera B-112 també dóna un servei notori al municipi comunicant-lo amb la C-55, enllaçant Abrera amb Manresa i Solsona. A part, també es disposa d’una línia d’autobusos que comunica la capital amb Igualada passant per Collbató. La finalitat del present projecte és reduir l’efecte barrera que genera l’autovia A-2 al llarg de tot el municipi, millorant així la connectivitat interna entre el propi terme municipal de Collbató mitjançant la construcció d’una passarel·la metàl·lica, tenint en compte factors funcionals, de seguretat, econòmics i estètics corresponents.
Categories: Novetats

Visualización de datos de un simulador OPC UA

UPCommons - ds., 01/06/2018 - 12:47
Visualización de datos de un simulador OPC UA Teterevkov, Daniil
Categories: Novetats

Substrate specificity of human metallocarboxypeptidase D: Comparison of the two active carboxypeptidase domains

UPCommons - dc., 01/03/2018 - 17:23
Substrate specificity of human metallocarboxypeptidase D: Comparison of the two active carboxypeptidase domains García-Pardo, Javier; Tanco, Sebastian; Diaz, Lucia; Dasgupta, Sayani; Fernandez-Recio, Juan; Lorenzo, Julia; Aviles, Francesc X.; Fricker, Lloyd D. Metallocarboxypeptidase D (CPD) is a membrane-bound component of the trans-Golgi network that cycles to the cell surface through exocytic and endocytic pathways. Unlike other members of the metallocarboxypeptidase family, CPD is a multicatalytic enzyme with three carboxypeptidase-like domains, although only the first two domains are predicted to be enzymatically active. To investigate the enzymatic properties of each domain in human CPD, a critical active site Glu in domain I and/or II was mutated to Gln and the protein expressed, purified, and assayed with a wide variety of peptide substrates. CPD with all three domains intact displays >50% activity from pH 5.0 to 7.5 with a maximum at pH 6.5, as does CPD with mutation of domain I. In contrast, the domain II mutant displayed >50% activity from pH 6.5–7.5. CPD with mutations in both domains I and II was completely inactive towards all substrates and at all pH values. A quantitative peptidomics approach was used to compare the activities of CPD domains I and II towards a large number of peptides. CPD cleaved C-terminal Lys or Arg from a subset of the peptides. Most of the identified substrates of domain I contained C-terminal Arg, whereas comparable numbers of Lys- and Arg-containing peptides were substrates of domain II. We also report that some peptides with C-terminal basic residues were not cleaved by either domain I or II, showing the importance of the P1 position for CPD activity. Finally, the preference of domain I for C-terminal Arg was validated through molecular docking experiments. Together with the differences in pH optima, the different substrate specificities of CPD domains I and II allow the enzyme to perform distinct functions in the various locations within the cell.
Categories: Novetats

GARRLiC and LIRIC: strengths and limitations for the characterization of dust and marine particles along with their mixtures

UPCommons - dc., 01/03/2018 - 16:49
GARRLiC and LIRIC: strengths and limitations for the characterization of dust and marine particles along with their mixtures Tsekeri, Alexandra; Lopatin, Anton; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Igloffstein, Julia; Siomos, Nikolaos; Solomos, Stavros; Kokkalis, Panagiotis; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Gratsea, Myrto; Raptis, Panagiotis I.; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kalivitis, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Bartsotas, Nikolaos; Kallos, George; Basart, Sara; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Wandinger, Ulla; Ansmann, Albert; Chaikovsky, Anatoli P.; Dubovik, Oleg The Generalized Aerosol Retrieval from Radiometer and Lidar Combined data algorithm (GARRLiC) and the LIdar-Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC) provide the opportunity to study the aerosol vertical distribution by combining ground-based lidar and sun-photometric measurements. Here, we utilize the capabilities of both algorithms for the characterization of Saharan dust and marine particles, along with their mixtures, in the south-eastern Mediterranean during the CHARacterization of Aerosol mixtures of Dust and Marine origin Experiment (CHARADMExp). Three case studies are presented, focusing on dust-dominated, marine-dominated and dust–marine mixing conditions. GARRLiC and LIRIC achieve a satisfactory characterization for the dust-dominated case in terms of particle microphysical properties and concentration profiles. The marine-dominated and the mixture cases are more challenging for both algorithms, although GARRLiC manages to provide more detailed microphysical retrievals compared to AERONET, while LIRIC effectively discriminates dust and marine particles in its concentration profile retrievals. The results are also compared with modelled dust and marine concentration profiles and surface in situ measurements.
Categories: Novetats

Unconventional Current Scaling and Edge Effects for Charge Transport through Molecular Clusters

UPCommons - dc., 01/03/2018 - 14:41
Unconventional Current Scaling and Edge Effects for Charge Transport through Molecular Clusters Obersteiner, Veronika; Huhs, Georg; Papior, Nick; Zojer, Egbert Metal–molecule–metal junctions are the key components of molecular electronics circuits. Gaining a microscopic understanding of their conducting properties is central to advancing the field. In the present contribution, we highlight the fundamental differences between single-molecule and ensemble junctions focusing on the fundamentals of transport through molecular clusters. In this way, we elucidate the collective behavior of parallel molecular wires, bridging the gap between single molecule and large-area monolayer electronics, where even in the latter case transport is usually dominated by finite-size islands. On the basis of first-principles charge-transport simulations, we explain why the scaling of the conductivity of a junction has to be distinctly nonlinear in the number of molecules it contains. Moreover, transport through molecular clusters is found to be highly inhomogeneous with pronounced edge effects determined by molecules in locally different electrostatic environments. These effects are most pronounced for comparably small clusters, but electrostatic considerations show that they prevail also for more extended systems.
Categories: Novetats

Relationships between Arctic sea ice drift and strength modelled by NEMO-LIM3.6

UPCommons - dc., 01/03/2018 - 14:17
Relationships between Arctic sea ice drift and strength modelled by NEMO-LIM3.6 Docquier, David; Massonnet, François; Barthélemy, Antoine; Tandon, Neil F.; Lecomte, Olivier; Fichelet, Thierry Sea ice cover and thickness have substantially decreased in the Arctic Ocean since the beginning of the satellite era. As a result, sea ice strength has been reduced, allowing more deformation and fracturing and leading to increased sea ice drift speed. We use the version 3.6 of the global ocean–sea ice NEMO-LIM model (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean coupled to the Louvain-la-Neuve sea Ice Model), satellite, buoy and submarine observations, as well as reanalysis data over the period from 1979 to 2013 to study these relationships. Overall, the model agrees well with observations in terms of sea ice extent, concentration and thickness. The seasonal cycle of sea ice drift speed is reasonably well reproduced by the model. NEMO-LIM3.6 is able to capture the relationships between the seasonal cycles of sea ice drift speed, concentration and thickness, with higher drift speed for both lower concentration and lower thickness, in agreement with observations. Model experiments are carried out to test the sensitivity of Arctic sea ice drift speed, thickness and concentration to changes in sea ice strength parameter P*. These show that higher values of P* generally lead to lower sea ice deformation and lower sea ice thickness, and that no single value of P* is the best option for reproducing the observed drift speed and thickness. The methodology proposed in this analysis provides a benchmark for a further model intercomparison related to the relationships between sea ice drift speed and strength, which is especially relevant in the context of the upcoming Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6).
Categories: Novetats

The effects of electron cyclotron heating and current drive on toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes in tokamak plasmas

UPCommons - dc., 01/03/2018 - 14:01
The effects of electron cyclotron heating and current drive on toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes in tokamak plasmas Sharapov, S.E.; Garcia-Muñoz, M.; van Zeeland, M.A.; Bobkov, B.; Classen, I.G.J.; Ferreira, J.; Figueiredo, A.; Fitzgerald, M.; Galdon-Quiroga, J.; Gallart, D.; Geiger, B.; Gonzalez-Martin, J.; Johnson, T.; Lauber, P.; Mantsinen, Mervi; Nabais, F.; Nikolaeva, V.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Schneider, P.A.; Snicker, A.; Vallejos, P.; AUG Team; EUROfusion MST1 Team Dedicated studies performed for toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) in ASDEX-Upgrade (AUG) discharges with monotonic q-profiles have shown that electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) can make TAEs more unstable. In these AUG discharges, energetic ions driving TAEs were obtained by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). It was found that off-axis ECRH facilitated TAE instability, with TAEs appearing and disappearing on timescales of a few milliseconds when the ECRH power was switched on and off. On-axis ECRH had a much weaker effect on TAEs, and in AUG discharges performed with co- and counter-current electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), the effects of ECCD were found to be similar to those of ECRH. Fast ion distributions produced by ICRH were computed with the PION and SELFO codes. A significant increase in T e caused by ECRH applied off-axis is found to increase the fast ion slowing-down time and fast ion pressure causing a significant increase in the TAE drive by ICRH-accelerated ions. TAE stability calculations show that the rise in T e causes also an increase in TAE radiative damping and thermal ion Landau damping, but to a lesser extent than the fast ion drive. As a result of the competition between larger drive and damping effects caused by ECRH, TAEs become more unstable. It is concluded, that although ECRH effects on AE stability in present-day experiments may be quite significant, they are determined by the changes in the plasma profiles and are not particularly ECRH specific.
Categories: Novetats

Organització industrial

UPC OpenCourseware - dt., 12/26/2017 - 00:00

Presentar la temàtica bàsica relacionada amb l'organització de sistemes productius i logístics enfocada a alguns temes de disseny i direcció, proporcionant a l'alumne una visió conceptual de base acompanyada d'alguns aspectes instrumentals de detall.


Categories: Novetats

A computational intelligence analysis of G proteincoupled receptor sequinces for pharmacoproteomic applications

UPCommons - dl., 12/25/2017 - 02:30
A computational intelligence analysis of G proteincoupled receptor sequinces for pharmacoproteomic applications Cárdenas Domínguez, Martha Ivón Arguably, drug research has contributed more to the progress of medicine during the past decades than any other scientific factor. One of the main areas of drug research is related to the analysis of proteins. The world of pharmacology is becoming increasingly dependent on the advances in the fields of genomics and proteomics. This dependency brings about the challenge of finding robust methods to analyze the complex data they generate. Such challenge invites us to go one step further than traditional statistics and resort to approaches under the conceptual umbrella of artificial intelligence, including machine learning (ML), statistical pattern recognition and soft computing methods. Sound statistical principles are essential to trust the evidence base built through the use of such approaches. Statistical ML methods are thus at the core of the current thesis. More than 50% of drugs currently available target only four key protein families, from which almost a 30% correspond to the G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCR) superfamily. This superfamily regulates the function of most cells in living organisms and is at the centre of the investigations reported in the current thesis. No much is known about the 3D structure of these proteins. Fortunately, plenty of information regarding their amino acid sequences is readily available. The automatic grouping and classification of GPCRs into families and these into subtypes based on sequence analysis may significantly contribute to ascertain the pharmaceutically relevant properties of this protein superfamily. There is no biologically-relevant manner of representing the symbolic sequences describing proteins using real-valued vectors. This does not preclude the possibility of analyzing them using principled methods. These may come, amongst others, from the field of statisticalML. Particularly, kernel methods can be used to this purpose. Moreover, the visualization of high-dimensional protein sequence data can be a key exploratory tool for finding meaningful information that might be obscured by their intrinsic complexity. That is why the objective of the research described in this thesis is twofold: first, the design of adequate visualization-oriented artificial intelligence-based methods for the analysis of GPCR sequential data, and second, the application of the developed methods in relevant pharmacoproteomic problems such as GPCR subtyping and protein alignment-free analysis.; Se podría decir que la investigación farmacológica ha desempeñado un papel predominante en el avance de la medicina a lo largo de las últimas décadas. Una de las áreas principales de investigación farmacológica es la relacionada con el estudio de proteínas. La farmacología depende cada vez más de los avances en genómica y proteómica, lo que conlleva el reto de diseñar métodos robustos para el análisis de los datos complejos que generan. Tal reto nos incita a ir más allá de la estadística tradicional para recurrir a enfoques dentro del campo de la inteligencia artificial, incluyendo el aprendizaje automático y el reconocimiento de patrones estadístico, entre otros. El uso de principios sólidos de teoría estadística es esencial para confiar en la base de evidencia obtenida mediante estos enfoques. Los métodos de aprendizaje automático estadístico son uno de los fundamentos de esta tesis. Más del 50% de los fármacos en uso hoy en día tienen como ¿diana¿ apenas cuatro familias clave de proteínas, de las que un 30% corresponden a la super-familia de los G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCR). Los GPCR regulan la funcionalidad de la mayoría de las células y son el objetivo central de la tesis. Se desconoce la estructura 3D de la mayoría de estas proteínas, pero, en cambio, hay mucha información disponible de sus secuencias de amino ácidos. El agrupamiento y clasificación automáticos de los GPCR en familias, y de éstas a su vez en subtipos, en base a sus secuencias, pueden contribuir de forma significativa a dilucidar aquellas de sus propiedades de interés farmacológico. No hay forma biológicamente relevante de representar las secuencias simbólicas de las proteínas mediante vectores reales. Esto no impide que se puedan analizar con métodos adecuados. Entre estos se cuentan las técnicas provenientes del aprendizaje automático estadístico y, en particular, los métodos kernel. Por otro lado, la visualización de secuencias de proteínas de alta dimensionalidad puede ser una herramienta clave para la exploración y análisis de las mismas. Es por ello que el objetivo central de la investigación descrita en esta tesis se puede desdoblar en dos grandes líneas: primero, el diseño de métodos centrados en la visualización y basados en la inteligencia artificial para el análisis de los datos secuenciales correspondientes a los GPCRs y, segundo, la aplicación de los métodos desarrollados a problemas de farmacoproteómica tales como la subtipificación de GPCRs y el análisis de proteinas no-alineadas.
Categories: Novetats

Improvement of early warning monitoring using gamma spectrometry

UPCommons - dl., 12/25/2017 - 02:30
Improvement of early warning monitoring using gamma spectrometry Camp Brunés, Anna The present thesis is focused on the improvement of radiological surveillance networks using gamma spectrometry. Tipically they are equipped with gamma dose rate monitors, while they do not have gamma spectrometry monitors. These measure the effects of gamma radiation, but do not provide any nuclide-specific information. Nowadays new materials have been developed in the spectrometry research field and the implementation of gamma spectrometry detectors is being actively considered in European gamma-dose stations (more than 5000). In this thesis the lanthanum bromide, LaBr3(Ce), detector has been selected as the reference instrument to study the possibility of installing it in early warning networks. The reasons for its choice were its resolution, which improves from 7 % to 3 % at 662 keV, its availability and the fact that these detectors are already being used at institutions such as STUK, the nuclear safety authority in Finland. Selected monitors have been characterized by irradiation at a reference laboratory at the Institute of Energy Technologies (INTE). Furthermore, the study of their inherent background and the influence of cosmic radiation have been investigated by means of exposures in lakes, underground laboratories and the use of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. In addition to its main function, gamma spectroscopy, these detectors allow the possibility of calculating values of ambient dose equivalent H*(10). In this thesis two different methods have been developed and applied to spectra measured using LaBr3(Ce) crystals in long-term measurements and intercomparison campaigns, the stripping method and the conversion coefficients method. The first is based on obtaining the external flux that reaches the monitor and involves the subtraction of all partial absorptions produced by scatterings in the monitor itself. This methodology, which has been already studied and usually applied to HPGe detectors, proved that it can also offer good results in LaBr3(Ce) detectors. The second methodology is based on splitting the spectra into several energy regions, and a coefficient to "convert" from measured counts to H *(10) values for each region is defined. Results obtained have been compared with classical dose rate monitor values. The long-term measurements were performed at surveillance stations in Barcelona and Madrid. Since, fortunately, there were no radiological emergencies during research for this thesis, H*(10) diurnal and seasonal variations at these stations are studied from the viewpoint of the influence of cosmic radiation and variations of 222Rn daughter concentration. Intercomparison campaigns were performed at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) facilities to study both detector sensibility and the accuracy of H*(10) calculated values. Use of new technological advances in the determination of high levels of H*(10) led us to study the viability of installing gamma radiation detectors on an unmanned aerial vehicle. In this thesis a drone prototype has been developed which uses a 3'' x 3'' NaI installed in an RPAS helicopter. The first flights took place at different altitudes and over a pond in order to study detector sensitivity. Although the prototype it is still at an initial stage and more flights are required, preliminary results obtained are promising, showing that the system is able to detect variations in terrestrial radioactivity.; La present tesis se centra en la millora de les estacions de radiovigilància ambiental a partir de l'ús de l'espectrometria gamma. Típicament aquestes estacions estan equipades amb monitors de mesura de dosis, però no disposen d'equips d'espectrometria. Això significa que es poden prendre mesures dels efectes de la radiació, la dosis, però no es pot obtenir informació sobre els radionúclids que produeixen aquesta radiació. Avui en dia s'han desenvolupat nous materials en el camp de l'espectrometria i la implementació d'aquest tipus de detectors s'està considerant activament per part de les estacions de radiovigilància europees (més de 5000). A la tesis el detector de bromur de lantà, LaBr3(Ce), s'ha seleccionat com a instrument de referència per estudiar la viabilitat de ser instal·lat a les estacions anomenades "early warning", és a dir, que està previst donin el primer avís en cas d'emergència radiològica. Les raons d'escollir aquest detector són la seva resolució, que millora del 7 % al 3 % als 662 keV, la seva disponibilitat i el fet que aquests detectors ja s'han començat a utilitzar per institucions com l'STUK, l'autoritat de seguretat nuclear a Finlàndia. Els monitors seleccionats s'han caracteritzat mitjançant irradiacions al laboratori de referència de l'Institut de Tècniques Energètiques (INTE). També s'han realitzat estudis sobre la seva contaminació interna i la influència de la radiació còsmica a través de mesures en llacs, laboratoris subterranis i l'ús de simulacions Monte Carlo (MC). A més de la seva principal funcionalitat, l'espectrometria gamma, també tenim la possibilitat de calcular valors de dosis equivalent ambiental H*(10) a partir dels espectres registrats. En aquesta tesis dues metodologies diferents s'han desenvolupat i aplicat als espectres mesurats amb cristalls de LaBr3(Ce), en mesures de llarga durada i en campanyes d'intercomparacions: la metodologia de l'"stripping" i la de "conversion coefficients". La primera es basa en obtenir el flux real que arriba al detector i implica restar totes aquelles absorcions parcials que es produeixen per "scatterings" en el monitor mateix. Aquesta metodologia, que ja s'ha estudiat i usualment s'aplicava a detectors de HPGe, ha mostrat bons resultats també amb els detectors de LaBr3(Ce). La segona metodologia es basa en dividir l'espectre en diferents regions energètiques i definir per cadascuna d'elles un coeficient per passar de número de comptes mesurats a valors de H*(10). Els resultats obtinguts amb els dos mètodes s'han comparat amb els que proporcionaria un monitor de taxa de dosis. Les mesures de llarga durada es van dur a terme en estacions de vigilància de Barcelona i Madrid. Com que, afortunadament, no va haver-hi cap emergència radiològica mentre s'estava realitzant la tesis, les variacions diürnes i estacionals de H*(10) en aquestes estacions s'han estudiat des del punt de vista de la influència de la radiació còsmica i les variacions en la concentració dels descendents del 222Rn. Les campanyes d'intercomparació es van dur a terme a les instal·lacions del Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) per estudiar tant la sensibilitat com la precisió dels valors de H*(10) calculats. L'ús dels nous avenços tecnològics en la determinació d'alts nivells de H*(10) ens han permès estudiar la viabilitat d'instal·lar detectors gamma en vehicles aeris no tripulats. En aquesta tesis s'ha desenvolupat un prototip de dron que utilitza un detector de 3" x 3" de NaI instal·lat en un helicòpter RPAS. Els primers vols es van realitzar a diferents alçades i sobrevolant un estany per tal de veure la seva sensibilitat. Malgrat que el prototip encara es troba en una fase inicial i caldran molts més vols de prova, els resultats inicials han estat prometedors, ja que han mostrat que el sistema és sensible a les variacions de la radioactivitat natural.
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Anàlisi quantitatiu de la velocitat dels vehicles a motor participants en atropellaments en zona urbana : modelització de la sensibilitat de la variable evitabilitat a les variacions de la velocitat específica del vehicle i de la velocitat màxima...

UPCommons - dl., 12/25/2017 - 02:30
Anàlisi quantitatiu de la velocitat dels vehicles a motor participants en atropellaments en zona urbana : modelització de la sensibilitat de la variable evitabilitat a les variacions de la velocitat específica del vehicle i de la velocitat màxima permesa de la via Cabrerizo Sinca, Julián Road traffic accidents lead to a number of significant problems, which are clearly reflected in the social costs (injuries, repercussions, deaths, etc.) and economic costs (prevention, healthcare, lost profits, etc.). This search analyses the road traffic accidents involving pedestrians occurring in urban areas in order to extract conclusions on their causes, as well as the conditions of the road, people and vehicles involved. The main goal is focused on a quantitative analysis of the influence had by motor vehicle speed in urban areas and how a change to the specific speed of the vehicle and/or the maximum speed limit influence the preventability of the accident itself. Achieving this goal is based on four stages, which are defined as secondary objectives but which also contribute significant value within the search. 1) Historic report on how mobility and accident rates have undergone various changes over time and in different scenarios. 2) Presentation of the knowledge held by a professional community - road traffic accident reconstruction experts - for its inclusion in the scientific debate. The data have been extracted (collected, deduced, calculated, etc.) using techniques inherent to the discipline, and listing and cataloguing them is essential to this search. 3) Design of a database containing all the significant variables allowing them to be inter-related for analysis of a road traffic accident. At most, this includes up to 250 records per case, distributed among highly distinct categories. 4) Categoric definition of the ¿preventability¿ concept, an essential variable in the road traffic accident reconstruction discipline. The concept of ¿preventability¿ in the field of this study is defined as the endogenous potential of the subject driver to avoid contact between a mechanical traction vehicle and a pedestrian exposed to the risk stemming from interaction between: a) the relative positions and prior speed of the pedestrian and vehicle; b) the perceptive and reactive capacity of the driver; and c) the surrounding environmental circumstances. Determining these significant variables enables the design of a preventability algorithm and preventability indices based on the maximum speed limit and the initial speed of the vehicle. Achieving the secondary objectives culminates in statistical models that can explain aspects related to the concept of preventability and its sensitivity to the speed involved in road traffic accidents involving pedestrians. Preventability modelling has been measured for three variables, i.e.: preventability, the preventability/vehicle speed index, and the preventability speed/maximum speed limit index. Six fundamental variables have been used to explain measurements relating to preventability: initial vehicle movement speed, maximum speed limit, risk exposure time of the pedestrian, maximum preventability speed, pedestrian movement speed and driver reaction time. The statistical models chosen depend on the type of variable to be explained: a logistic regression model has been used for the preventability variable (this being a dichotomous variable (0/1)) that allows the effect of each explanatory variable on the response variable (preventability) to be explained. In contrast, multiple linear regression models have been used for the preventability indices because these are capable of modelling continuous numeric variables in the response. The main contribution from the search is focused on modelling the influence had by motor vehicle speed in urban areas and how a change to the speed might influence the preventability of the accident itself. Modelling the sensitivity of preventability to speed, whether the initial movement speed or maximum speed limit.; La problemàtica de l'accidentalitat de transit té una importància rellevant: els costos socials (ferits, seqüeles, morts, etc.) i econòmics (prevenció, sanitaris, lucre cessant, etc.), així ho justifiquen. En aquesta recerca s'analitza els atropellaments produïts en entorns urbans per extreure conclusions relatives a les causes, circumstàncies de la via i de les persones i vehicles implicats. L'objectiu principal esta central en l’anàlisi quantitatiu de la influencia de la velocitat deis vehicles a motor en zona urbana i de com una variació de la velocitat específica del vehicle i/o de la velocitat màxima permesa, influeixen l'evitabilitat del propi accident. La consecució de l'objectiu, es desenvolupa en base a quatre etapes establertes com objectius secundaris, però que també són contribucions de vàlua significativa dins de la recerca efectuada . 1) Informe històric de com la mobilitat i l'accidentalitat han experimentat diverses mutacions cronològiques ien escenaris diferenciats. 2) Presentació del coneixement d'una comunitat professional -els reconstructors d'accidents de transit- per a la seva introducció al debat científic. L'extracció de dades (recollides, deduïdes, calculades, etc.) ha estat efectuada utilitzant tècniques pròpies de la disciplina i per desenvolupar aquesta recerca resulta imprescindible enumerar-les i catalogar-les. 3) Disseny d'una base de dades que conté toles les variables significatives i permet relacionar-les per analitzar un accident de transit. La versió maximalista ascendeix fins a uns 250 registres per cas , distribuïts per categories ben diferenciades. 4) Definició categòrica del concepte "Evitabilitat', variable fonamental en la disciplina de la Reconstrucció d'accidents. El concepte "Evitabilitat" a l’àmbit d'aquest estudi, esta definit com la potencialitat endògena del subjecte conductor, per eludir el contacte entre un vehicle de tracció mecànica i un vianant exposat al risc, que es deriva de la interacció entre :a) Les posicions relatives i velocitat prèvies de vianant i vehicle. b) La capacitat perceptiva i reactiva del conductor. c) Les circumstancies ambientals de l'entorn. La determinació de les variables significatives, habilita el disseny de l'algoritme de l'evitabilitar i els índexs d'evitabilitat en funció de velocitat màxima permesa i de la velocitat inicial del vehicle. La consecució deis objectius secundari, culminen en models estadístics que expliquen aspectes relacionats amb el concepte de l'evitabilitat i la seva sensibilitat a la velocitat deis atropellaments . La modelització de l'evitabilitat s'ha mesurat per tres variables que són: l'evitabilitat , l'índex d'evitabilitat a velocitat del vehicle i l'índex de la velocitat d'evitabilitat a velocitat màxima permesa. Per explicar les mesures relatives a l'evitabilitat, s'han utilitzat 6 variables fonamentals: velocitat de circulació Inicial del vehicle ; velocitat màxima permesa; temps d'exposició risc del vianant; velocitat màxima d'evitabilitat; velocitat desplaçament del vianant i temps de reacció del conductor. El models estadístics utilitzats depenen del tipus de variable a explicar: per la variable evitabilitat, al ser de tipus dicotòmic (0/1), s'ha utilitzat un model de regressió logística que permet explicar l'efecte que té cadascuna de les variables explicatives sobre la variable resposta (evitabilitat).En canvi, pels índex d'evitabilitat, s'han utilitzat models de regressió lineal múltiple, capaços de modelitzar variables numèriques contínues. La recerca, esta centrada en la modelització de la influencia de la velocitat deis vehicles a motor en zona urbana i de com una variació de la velocitat influeix en l'evitabilitat de l'accident. Modelitzem la sensibilitat de l'evitabilitat a la velocitat, ja sigui la velocitat de circulació Inicial o la màxima permesa.
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